Apoptosis SlideShare

  1. Apoptosis 1. Apoptosis SUBMITED BY AMIT KUMAR MPHARM (I Year) 1 2. In humans, the rate of cell growth and cell death is balanced to maintain the weight of the body. 2 3. Life cannot exist without cellular death 3 4. Cell death can occur via several processes (about 11 type): 1. Apoptosis 2. Necrosis 3. Autophagy 4. Entosis 5
  2. Apoptosis. 1. APOPTOSIS MOHD SAQUIB KHAN M.Sc 3rd SEMESTER DEPARTMENT OF BIOCHEMISTRY & MOLECULAR BIOLOGY PONDICHERRY UNIVERSITY. 2. INTRODUCTION Apoptosis is the process of programmed cell death. Biochemical events lead to characteristic cell changes (morphology) and death. These changes include blebbing, cell shrinkage, nuclear fragmentation,.
  3. 4. Apoptosis - Definition <ul><li>A pathway of cell death induced by a tightly regulated suicidal program, in which the cells destined to die activate enzymes that degrade cells own nuclear DNA and nuclear, cytoplasmic proteins. </li></ul>sclero dinesh. 5
  4. Apoptosis derived from Greek falling off (as for autumn leaves) A distinct reaction pattern which represents programmed single-cell suicide Cells actually expend energy in order to die The physiological way for a cell to die What is Apoptosis 3

Apoptosis (presentation) - SlideShar

Apoptosis. 1. 1. 2. The history of Apoptosis What Apoptosis means Significance of Apoptosis. Morphological changes Major players in apoptosis. Pathways to apoptosis Therapeutic implications. Pathological implication Detection of apoptotic cells 2. 3 Apoptosis (presentation) 1. By: Thinh Le 2. Introduction <ul><li>The word apoptosis was introduced by Kerr, Wyllie and Currie to describe a form of cell death distinct from necrosis. </li></ul><ul><li>Apo = [ Greek ] : from, separation from; Ptosis= [ Greek ] : dropping, a falling down </li></ul> 3 This presentation will help you to get knowledge about the topic apoptosis Apoptosis La apoptosis es una forma distinta tanto morfológicamente como bioquímicamente de muerte celular, que usa un control genético propio para que la muerte se produzca Su importancia es vital para muchos procesos fisiológicos como la morfogénesis, homeostasis y diferenciación En la enfermedad la apoptosis es responsable de la perdida de la función del tejido y el control de la proliferación en desordenes como la neoplasia y cáncer La apoptosis es un proceso muy limpio y controlado donde se guarda el contenido de la celda estrictamente dentro de la membrana celular como se degrada. La célula apoptótica serán fagocitados por los macrófagos antes de contenidos de la celda tienen una oportunidad de escaparse en el barrio

Apoptosis - slideshare

Apoptosis Muerte Celular - SlideShar

  1. Apoptosis, also called programmed cell death is the process where the cell regulates its own death through the production of certain enzymes. These enzymes..
  2. Apoptosis 1. APOPTOSISDR. HERBERT ANGELES VILLANUEVAUNFV 2. ∗ Es una forma activa de necrosis celular programadagenéticamente en respuesta a señales externas einternas.∗ Es un proceso fisiológicoAPOPTOSIS 3
  3. an células potencialmente dañinas y otras que ya envejecieron. Patológicas Cuando las células son dañadas y su reparación es irreversible, sobre todo si el daño afecta al ADN o a las proteínas de la célula. 3
  4. Apoptosis - the death of cells that promotes life Features of apoptosis versus apoptosis Apoptosis: a normal physiological response to specific suicide signals, or lack of survival signals. Nekrosis: a pathological response to cellular injury • Chromatin condenses, laddering of DNA • Chromatin clumps • Plasma membrane lyses • Cell contents spill out

A series of video tutorials discussing the topics for undergraduates in PathologyIn this 1st part of Apoptosis tutorial , i have discussed Definition, Causes.. apoptosis: causas, mecanismos y ejemplos. presentado por: diandra florez. maryuri herrera . heber cardona Whereas apoptosis is a form of cell death that is generally triggered by normal, healthy processes in the body, necrosis is cell death that is triggered by external factors or disease, such as trauma or infection.Apoptosis, which can also occur as a defense mechanism during healing processes, is almost always normal and beneficial to an organism, while necrosis is always abnormal and harmful This cell biology lecture that explains about the programmed cell death or apoptosis mechanism by which cell kills itself due to minimise the effect of some.

Apoptosis - es.slideshare.ne

Apoptosis - Introduction, Morphologic Changes and

Apoptosis is a tightly regulated and at the same time highly efficient cell death program which requires the interplay of a multitude of factors. The components of the apoptotic signalling network . ApoReview - Introduction to Apoptosis: Page 6 of 2 Apoptosis is a form of programmed cell death, or cellular suicide.. It is different from necrosis, in which cells die due to injury. Apoptosis is an orderly process in which the cell's contents are packaged into small packets of membrane for garbage collection by immune cells. Apoptosis removes cells during development, eliminates. This 3D medical animation explains the functioning of the extrinsic and intrinsic apoptotic pathways. We start off by taking a look at the important role apo..


APOPTOSIS PART 1: Definition, Causes & Mechanism/Pathways

La apoptosis, es una forma de muerte celular, que estáregulada genéticamente. En este proceso las células seautodestruyen sin desencadenar reacciones de inflamación nidejar cicatrices en los tejidos. La apoptosis es por tantoconsiderada como una muerte natural fisiológica, resultando enun mecanismo de eliminación de células no deseadas. The inactivation of programmed cell death, or apoptosis, is central to the development of cancer. This disabling of apoptotic responses might be a major contributor both to treatment resistance. Apoptosis (from Ancient Greek ἀπόπτωσις, apóptōsis, falling off) is a form of programmed cell death that occurs in multicellular organisms. Biochemical events lead to characteristic cell changes and death.These changes include blebbing, cell shrinkage, nuclear fragmentation, chromatin condensation, DNA fragmentation, and mRNA decay. The average adult human loses between 50 and 70.

Apoptosis: Muerte Ceuluar Programada11

Apoptosis Detection by Fluorescence Microscopy (protocol) Attach cells to slides and fix in methanol-free formaldehyde solution. Wash slides in PBS then permeabilize with Triton® X-100. Rinse slides in PBS and tap dry. Pre-equilibrate slides with Equilibration Buffer (5-10 minutes at room temperature) Apoptosis: A form of cell death in which a programmed sequence of events leads to the elimination of cells without releasing harmful substances into the surrounding area. Apoptosis plays a crucial role in developing and maintaining the health of the body by eliminating old cells, unnecessary cells, and unhealthy cells Apoptosis is also regulated by various signal transduction pathways, possibly through post-translational modifications in BCL-2 family proteins. For example, phosphorylation of BCL-2 through a JNK-dependent mechanism has been postulated to contribute to apoptosis induced by the taxane class of cytotoxic agents Apoptosis, or programmed cell death, is a growth-limiting regulatory mechanism by which cells can trigger their own death in response to extracellular signals because of irreparable cellular or DNA damage. The ability of tumor cells to elude apoptosis is a hallmark of most types of cancer. Apoptosis also plays an important role in developmental.

Apoptosis Y Ciclo Celular

apoptosis - pt.slideshare.ne

apoptotic cell death occurs. •List in temporal order the genetic and biochemical steps in apoptosis. •Contrast and compare physiologic and pathologic apoptosis. •Describe the mechanisms and implications of cellular aging. This lecture is pretty straightforward. You should be able to address these objectives by the end Apoptosis, also called programmed cell death, in biology, a mechanism that allows cells to self-destruct when stimulated by the appropriate trigger. Apoptosis can be triggered by mild cellular injury and by various factors internal or external to the cell; the damaged cells are then disposed of in an orderly fashion PD169316 induced dissociation between differentiation and apoptosis in mouse ES-derived differentiated cells. At 3 days upon LIF withdrawal, there was a mixture of living and apoptotic.

Apoptosis vs Necrosis - Difference and Comparison Diffe

4. All slides: 1x PBS rinse, 2 times (+ 10 min for those non-positive control slides). 5. (Positive control slide: in DNase I solution (100µl of 200µg/ml), 10 min, RT. 1x PBS rinse, 2 times in a separate container then combine with other slides.) 6. Wipe around tissue. 7 Apoptosis: Slide Set 4. STUDY. PLAY. Apoptosis is the process of programmed cell death (PCD) that may occur in multicellular organisms. Apoptosis is the mode of cell death. Where in a variety of settings does it occur? 1. Normal development 2. Normal homeostasis 3. Inhibition of cancer 4. Disease proces Background: Cardiorenal syndrome (CRS) is a major health burden worldwide in need of novel therapies, as current treatments remain suboptimal. The present study assessed the therapeutic potential of apoptosis signal-regulating kinase 1 (ASK1) inhibition in a rat model of CRS

Programmed Cell Death (apoptosis) - YouTub

Apoptosis is characterised by a series of typical morphological events, such as shrinkage of the cell, fragmentation into membrane-bound apoptotic bodies and rapid phagocytosis by neighbouring cells [1]. Internucleosomal fragmentation of genomic DNA has been the biochemical hallmark of apoptosis for many years [2] Apoptotic fetal thymus. In this fetal thymus there is involution of thymic lymphocytes by the mechanism of apoptosis. In this case, it is an orderly process and part of normal immune system maturation. Individual cells fragment and are consumed by phagocytes to give the appearance of clear spaces filled with cellular debris Apoptosis is a form of programmed cell death in which a highly specific and orderly set of biochemical changes underlie the unique morphologic changes and the ultimate disposition of the dying cell and its contents. Apoptotic cells undergo a striking, orderly fragmentation and disassembly, and are strong inducers of immune tolerance (see below) Terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase (TdT) dUTP Nick-End Labeling (TUNEL) assay has been designed to detect apoptotic cells that undergo extensive DNA degradation during the late stages of apoptosis. The method is based on the ability of TdT to label blunt ends of double-stranded DNA breaks indepen Anti-apoptosis: BCL-2, BCL-XL, MCL1 proteins Found in mitochondrial membranes Prevent cytochrome c from entering cytosol Pro-apoptosis: BAX and BAK proteins Bind to anti-apoptotic proteins pen pores in mitochondrial membranes Promote apoptosis As are for Apoptosis Electron Transport Cytosol uter Membrane Inner Membrane Inner Membran

Ciclo celular apoptosis - pt

Apoptosis is mainly regulated by cell growth signaling molecules. Number of research studies evidenced that fucoidan shown to induce cytotoxicity of various cancer cells, induces apoptosis, and inhibits invasion, metastasis and angiogenesis of cancer cells. There are few articles discussing on fucoidan biological activity but no specific review. Wash the slides twice in 100% ethanol for 3 min each time. iii. Clear the slides twice in xylene for 5 min each time. 26. Mount the sections on the slides under a coverslip with mounting medium. 27. View the sections under a light microscope to identify areas of staining. The labeled ends of DNA fragments are typically located in apoptotic nuclei Apoptosis, Necrosis, and Autophagy. Figure 14-1 Antagonistic pleiotropy This concept states that signals that engage the cell cycle also engage cell death, and tissues therefore expand only if cell death is blocked. Note that this does not mean that the cell cycle, or any component of its machinery, is responsible for cell death Three patients (10%) had chronic myelomonocytic leukemia. Cells in apoptosis were examined on semithin slides and expressed as the apoptotic index (AI) (percent counted on at least 1000 cells). An. They activate the pro-apoptosis proteins Fas ligand (FASL), Fas receptor (FASR), BCL-2-interacting mediator of cell death (BIM; also known as BCL2L11), BAX, p53 upregulated modulator of apoptosis.

Apoptosis is triggered by multi-signal pathways and regulated by multi-complicated extrinsic and intrinsic ligands. The process of apoptosis is controlled by diversity cell signals pathway and involved in regulation of cell fate death or survival. There are two major apoptosis pathways distinguished according to whether caspases are involved or. In this video the second pathway for extrinsic apoptosis have been discussed. This pathway is mediated via FAS Ligand and FAS Receptor.The fas receptor (Firs..

The mitochondria are essential to multicellular life. Without them, a cell ceases to respire aerobically and quickly dies. This fact forms the basis for some.. Elabscience ® improves the process of the entire line of products, and offers you a highly sensitive, fast and simple apoptosis detection kit (TUNEL) at a lower price and a better product experience, which can better assist in apoptosis research on diseases related to cell function and research and development of related drugs.. One-step TUNEL assay kit ( FITC, AF488, AF594, EV450, AF647. CometAssay® Kit (25 x 2 well slides) $ 247.00. CometAssay® Kit includes twenty-five specially treated CometSlides™ (2 Well) and sufficient reagents (Lysis Solution, LMAgarose, and 200 mM EDTA pH 8) for 50 test samples. CometAssay® Kit (25 x 2 well slides) quantity. Add to cart. Available Size (s): 50 samples Catalog Number: 4250-050-K

Apoptosis: During apoptosis, mitochondria become leaky by forming pores on the membrane. Organelles in an apoptotic cell still function even after the cell death apoptosis, resulting in cleavage of nuclear DNA into oligonucleosome-sized fragments. Therefore, this process is commonly used for detec-tion of apoptosis by the typical DNA ladder on agarose gels during electrophoresis. This method, however, can not provide information regarding apoptosis in individual cells nor relate cellular apoptosis t To quantify cell apoptosis, PBMCs or T cells were isolated, cultured in the presence or absence of KML001 and 10 μg/ml mouse anti-human CD178 (a-Fas ligand), CD40 (a-TNFα), and CD253 (a-TRAIL) or mouse IgG1 κ isotype control antibody (BD Biosciences, San Jose, CA) and collected at the indicated times, and then stained with CD4-FITC. The p53 mediated apoptosis pathway is one of the major apoptosis signaling pathways involving the stimulation of both the extrinsic and intrinsic pathways by the p53 protein. Tumor protein p53 is a nuclear transcription factor that regulates the expression of a wide variety of genes involved in apoptosis, growth arrest, or senescence in.

Bloqueadores de canales de calcio

Pyroptosis is an inflammatory form of programmed cell death triggered by caspase-1/4/5/11 which is activated by some inflammasomes. Pyroptosis results in cell swelling, plasma membrane lysis, chromatin fragmentation and release of the intracellular proinflammatory contents. Caspase-1 is well known as a protease that is involved in maturating. Indeed, unlike apoptosis, necrotic cell death is not the result of one or two well-described signaling cascades but is the consequence of an extensive cross talk between various molecular events. Six characteristic morphologic patterns of necrosis are distinguished in pathology: coagulative necrosis, caseous necrosis, liquefactive necrosis, fat. To test the hypothesis that enhanced epithelial apoptosis is an initial event underlying the gross histologic changes, we analyzed epithelial apoptosis and tissue morphology in an animal model of. Enzyme pretreatment of the sec- development,5-8 but the apoptotic processes involved in tions with 0.5% trypsin (Sigma-Aldrich Co. Ltd) was the progression of cervical carcinoma have not been performed at 37 C for 5 min. Slides were then blocked clearly defined.9 Free b-subunit human chorionic with horse serum (Harlan, Sera-Lab, Bolney, UK.

Apoptosis You Win or You Die SAHIL LOOMBA SALIL SHARMA UTKARSH KUMAR JAUHARI SBL702: Systems Biology, Term Paper Presentation, 19th November, 2014. Apoptosis - Background •It is a process of 'Programmed Cell Death'. Assessment of apoptosis. Morphological assessment is the standard method for identifying and quantifying apoptosis. Other approaches include the use of fluorescence dyes to stain for condensed nuclei or exposed cell surface phosphatidylserine and the detection of fragmented DNA by terminal transferase mediated dUTP-biotin nick end labelling (TUNEL) Apoptosis, a programmed cell death mechanism, is one of the processes by which cells die and evasion of apoptosis is considered a Hallmark of Cancer. Apoptosis proceeds through several stages that are characterized by distinct changes in cell morphology, which can culminate in the engulfment of apoptotic cells by macrophages (Elmore 2007) apoptosis or necrosis (see figure, p. 325) (Rosser and Gores 1995). When a cell undergoes apoptosis, the entire cell, including the nucleus, separates into numerous fragments (i.e., apoptotic bodies). Simultaneously, the genetic material (i.e., DNA) of apoptotic cells breaks into a characteristic pattern of pieces of varying sizes. During the.

Mechanism of Apoptosis & its Significance Easy Biology Clas

Neuron apoptosis or necrosis (EM). This single term apoptosis describes the way in which the majority of cells die within our adult body are removed every day, Programmed Cell Death. In development, apoptosis begins in the early blastocyst and is a developmental mechanism found throughout tissues in the embryo and fetus developmental stages Apoptosis. The induction of apoptosis leads to characteristic cell changes and finally to death (see How to measure early apoptotic events). These changes include blebbing, cell shrinkage, nuclear fragmentation, chromatin condensation, and chromosomal DNA fragmentation. Furthermore, changes affecting the membrane, nucleus, cytoplasm, and. Apoptosis - Overall Scheme. Apoptosis Overview (University of London) Apoptosis Slide Show (Roche Diagnostic) The Phytoplankton Cell Death Page. Regulation of Trophoblast Apoptosis, With Emphasis on the Role of Nitric oxide. Developmental Cell Death. Programmed Cell Death in Development. Apoptosis Pathway. Apoptosis Pathway Biological induction of apoptosis Activation of Fas or TNF receptors by their respective ligands, or by cross-linking with an agonist antibody, induces apoptosis of Fas- or TNF receptor-bearing cells. Here we describe a general protocol to induce apoptosis using an anti-Fas receptor (anti-CD95) monoclonal antibody (mAb) in Jurkat cells Nearly 15 types of programmed cell death (PCD) have been identified to date. Among them, apoptosis is the most common and well-studied type of PCD. In this review, we discuss different apoptotic pathways in which plasma membrane and membrane organelles, such as mitochondria, endoplasmic reticulum, Golgi apparatus, lysosomes, and nucleus play the pivotal role. Data concerning caspase cascades.

Intrinsic Pathway of Apoptosis (The Mitochondria Mediated Programmed Cell Death Pathway) Two Types of Apoptosis. In the previous post, we have discussed the characteristic features and significance of programmed cell death or apoptosis.As we discussed, the stimuli for the execution of programmed cell death can be of internal or external to the apoptotic cell Download our apoptosis pathway here. . Apoptosis, also referred to as programmed cell death, is a regulated form of cell death that involves distinct biochemical and morphological changes1. Apoptosis can be triggered by both internal and external factors. Internal factors include misfolded proteins and deregulated signaling, while nutrient loss. In contrast, apoptosis is initiated by a number of internal and external routes; it is a well-controlled process that results in the slow turnover of cell remnants and phagocytosis by neighboring macrophages. Table 1. Physiological events during apoptosis, autophagy, and necrosis The apoptotic and necrotic cells were detected at 2, 4, 12, and 24 h post-drug treatment, where HeLa cells were labeled with nucleic acid-binding dye mix of 25 µg/mL acridine orange and 25 µg/mL. We have used these noncytospin slides to observe Phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate- (PMA-) induced differentiation and Bay 11-7085-induced apoptosis in several human myeloid leukemia cells after staining with different stain reagents. 2. Materials and Methods 2.1. Preparation of Slides and Glass Spreade

Apoptosis Assays Apoptosis Detection Apoptosis Marker

Evasion of Apoptosis • Many proteins are involved in apoptosis: • p53 • Fas (the death receptor) • Executioner caspases • BCL2 protein family • If genes for these proteins are mutated, the cell will be able to avoid killing itself Apoptosis is a highly regulated timely event. Necrosis is an unregulated random event. 3. Genetically Controlled. Not Genetically controlled. 4. Apoptosis is a pre-planned cell death pathway. Necrosis is not a pre-planned cell death pathway. 5 TUNEL staining is a modern alternative to analyzing the formation of DNA fragments during apoptosis using agarose gel electrophoresis, as used in Apoptotic DNA Ladder Isolation Kit ab65627. TUNEL assay methods. TUNEL staining / the TUNEL assay is most commonly analyzed by light microscopy Apoptosis Detection in Cultured Cells Preparation of Slides Grow cells on chamber slides or cytospin/pipette cells onto poly-L-lysine-coated slides. Apoptosis Detection 1. Fix: Immerse slides in 10% buffered formalin or 4% paraformaldehyde for 25 minutes. 2. Wash: Immerse slides twice in PBS, 5 minutes each time. 3 Light Scatter [2 slides] WT : Page : Excitation / Emission peaks [9 slides] WT : Page : Applications [14 slides] JPR : Page : Antibody Binding [49 slides] CCS : Page : Multiparameter Immunofluorescence [67 slides] CCS & SJS : Page : Compensation [16 slides] CCS & SJS : Page : Simultaneous Measurement of Necrotic, Apoptotic Dead and Live Cells.

Apoptosis in cancer: from pathogenesis to treatment

Apoptosis Morphological Features Biochemical Features Necrosis 1. Cytoplasmicshrinkage 2. Chromancondensaon 3. Nuclearfragmentaon 4. Blebbing,PMintact 5. Apoptocbodies 1. Cytoplasmicswelling 2. Organelleswelling 3. Irregularchromanstructure 4. Dilataonofnuclear membrane 1. Caspasedependent 2. ATPdependent 3. PhosphadylserineP Apoptosis Research. Apoptosis is a process of programmed cell death that removes old and damaged cells to maintain homeostasis in multicellular organisms.The term apoptosis was adopted from the Greek word for the process of leaves falling from trees or petals falling from flowers (1) and was adopted to differentiate naturally occurring developmental cell death from the necrosis that.

Results The apoptosis rate of PDL cells in PMSC‐CM was significantly lower than that in HBSS at 24 h (P < 0.001), while the two groups showed similar cell apoptosis rates at 6 and 12 h (P > 0.05) Cellometer Counting Chambers are compatible with all Cellometer Systems. Each all-plastic, disposable slide contains two sample counting chambers with precisely controlled height. The fixed 20µl sample size allows for simple, automated calculation of cell concentration following imaging and counting Apoptosis is an important biological process during development, and for maintaining tissue homeostasis. TUNEL staining allows for visualization and quantification of apoptotic cells. This helps scientists test efficacy of new treatments for disorders in which apoptosis is either inhibited, like in cancer, or enhanced, as in neurodegeneration Live Cell Apoptosis Imaging Experiments. Jurkat cells (88042803) were first loaded onto the CellASIC ONIX M04T Pad Trap Plate (M04T-01-5PK) and were then incubated with BioTracker NucView ® 488 Green Caspase-3 Dye (SCT101) for 30 minutes in complete RPMI-1640 media (SLM-240-B), followed by treatment of 2.5 µg/mL CD-95 antibody (05-201) (experiment group) or no treatment (control) for 12 hours Apoptosis occurs by one of two pathways: (1) a death-receptor pathway, and (2) the mitochondrial pathway (Green, 1998). To determine if death-receptor pathways contribute to bile acid-mediated apoptosis, hepatocytes from tumor necrosis factor-receptor 1 (TNF-R1) and Fas-deficient mice were exposed to GCDC


This kit is FITC-labeled (Ex/Em = 495/519nm). It was previously called TUNEL Assay Kit - In situ Direct DNA Fragmentation. To use BrdU-Red (Ex/Em = 488/576nm) as a label, we recommend TUNEL Assay Kit - BrdU-Red (ab66110).. For chromogenic TUNEL staining, we recommend TUNEL Assay Kit - HRP-DAB ab206386.. Find out more about the TUNEL method in the TUNEL staining / TUNEL assay guide Apoptosis is a highly regulated process and involves a significant number of signaling pathways. Thermo Fisher Scientific offers a wide range of primary antibodies, ELISA kits, multiplexed immunoassays, peptides and recombinant proteins as well as genomic assays targeted to specific proteins Slides with fixed apoptotic tissues to confirm positive reaction with any of the TACS or TACS-XL in situ apoptosis detection kits. Cobalt Cation (Catalog # 4810-90-09) For optimizing TdT labeling in TACS in situ apoptosis detection kits. Cobalt is the standard cation for labeling all cell types and tissues The Click-iT TUNEL Colorimetric IHC Detection Kit is used to identify apoptotic cells in tissue and cultured cell samples through the use of a small, highly specific labeling moiety and streptavidin-peroxidase conjugation. After incorporation of the labeling moiety into sites of DNA fragmentation, Apoptosis is an active process of self-destruction, whereby cells undergo physiological cell death. It occurs during development and regulation of tissue homeostasis or as a result of changes in environmental stimuli [].Induction of apoptosis is due to the absence of specific interactions between transmembrane receptors of the integrin family and extracellular matrix proteins [] Apoptosis Assays. Cell death is necessary for many normal physiological functions in the course of both development and homeostasis. The capacity for tumor cells to elude programmed cell death, also known as apoptosis, is a hallmark of most types of cancer. A wide variety of cellular proteins, including cell surface receptors, adaptors.